The Cost of Gifting Your Home
Category: Elder Law, Estate Planning, Tax Law and Planning
This brief article from mortgage101.com outlines why there may be a large cost of making a gift of your home to your children now, instead of continuing to live in it an bequeathing it to your children at your death.
"First and foremost, your child or friend's basis in the house will be what you paid for the property, plus major improvements. Because this cost you paid years ago is probably much lower than today's soaring home value, there's a chance tax will be owed on a subsequent sale.
For example, if you purchased your home in 1970 for $60,000 and it is now worth $450,000, your child's basis would be $60,000 if you chose to transfer the home to the child as a gift. If the married child sells the home 10 years down the road for $760,000, their tax liability would be on $200,000 ($760,000 minus the $60,000 basis, minus the $500,000 exclusion for married couples). Taxpayers in the 15 percent tax bracket would thus owe the Internal Revenue Service approximately $30,000 in capital gains tax."
BUT BE AWARE:
If the child did not live in the house, there would not be a "$500,000 exclusion for married couples" as outlined above. That only applies if the child and his or her spouse lived in the house for 2 years or more before sale. If you gifted the house to a child and you continued to live there, upon sale the child's basis would only be $60,000, leaving $700,000 subject to capital gain.
Also, while the federal capital gain tax rate is generally 15%, the state may have an additional capital gain rate. For example, in New Jersey, the capital gain rate is 7 1/2%, bringing the total combined capital gains tax rate to 22 1/2%, which on a $700,000 sale would be $157,500 - not chump change.
TWO ITEMS OF NOTE:
First, for Medicaid planning it may be worth the potential capital gains tax cost to remove the asset from your "available assets" so that the house does not have to be sold to provide for your long term care.
Second, it is possible to gift part of the house now, and keep enough of it to get a "step-up in basis" at your death. For example, if you give away the house, but retain the right to live there during your lifetime (a "life estate"), then the house will be part of your taxable estate. This means that your children's basis in the house upon your death would be the date of death value, $760,000 in the above example. Thus, if the children sold the house for $760,000, there would be no capital gain. But beware of the trap that keeping the asset in your taxable estate may cause an estate tax issue (New Jersey's estate tax exemption is only $675,000) just to avoid a capital gains tax issue. (A last point that here the NJ estate tax rates, which range up to 16% on amounts over $675,000 would be far less then the combined federal and state capital gains rates of 22.5% on $700,000 of gain.)